header image Professor Hakim Dilshad Hussain Tabssum (Gold Medalist) Ex-member: American Infertility Association (USA)
 
 

Kidney Stones-Stomach Ulcers

Kidney-Stoneswhat is Kidney Stones  symptoms and Treatment ?

The reason why most kidney stones form is not known. A stone may cause no problems but often it causes pain. Most kidney stones are small and pass out with the urine. Some stones become stuck in a ureter or kidney and cause persistent symptoms or problems. There are various treatment options to remove a stuck stone. About half of people who have a kidney stone develop another one at a later time in their life. Drinking plenty of water each day may prevent a recurrence.

Kidney stones can form within the kidney, within the ureter (the tube draining urine from the kidney) or in the bladder. They can be many different sizes and shapes. The size of kidney stones ranges from tiny microscopic crystals to stones as large as potatoes.

About 3 in 20 men and 1 in 20 women in the UK develop a kidney stone at some stage in their life. They can occur at any age but most commonly occur between the ages of 20 and 40. About half of people who develop a kidney stone will have at least one recurrence at some stage in the future.

The kidneys filter the blood and remove excess water and waste chemicals to produce urine. Urine travels from each kidney down a tube called the ureter into the bladder, then out of the body via the urethra when the bladder is full. Many waste chemicals are dissolved in the urine. The chemicals sometimes form tiny crystals in the urine which clump together to form a small stone.

In some cases, a kidney stone lies in a kidney and causes no problems or symptoms. You may not be aware that a stone has formed. If symptoms do occur, they include one or more of the following:

  • Pain from a kidney. A stone that is stuck in a kidney may cause pain in the side of the abdomen.
  • Renal colic. This is a severe pain which comes and goes and is caused by a stone that passes into the ureter (the tube that leads from the kidney to the bladder). The stone becomes stuck. The ureter squeezes the stone towards the bladder, which causes intense pain in
    • the side of your abdomen. The pain may spread down into the lower abdomen or groin. You may sweat or feel sick due to the pain.
    • Blood. You may see blood in your urine (urine turns red) caused by a stone rubbing against the inside of your ureter.
    • Infection. Urine infections are more common in people with kidney stones. Infections can cause fever, pain on passing urine and increased frequency of passing urine.

    Unknown cause

    In most cases, there is no known reason why a stone forms. Most stones are made of calcium. However, in most cases, the amount of calcium and other chemicals in the urine and blood is normal. You are more likely to form a stone if your urine is concentrated. For example, if you exercise vigorously, if you live in a hot climate or if you work in a hot environment when you may lose more fluid as sweat and less as urine.

    Underlying causes are uncommon

    In a small number of cases, a medical condition is the cause. Various uncommon conditions can lead to high levels of chemicals in the body, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid and cystine. If the level of these chemicals is high enough in the urine, they can form into stones.

    Medicines

    Taking certain medicines can make you more prone to making kidney stones. Examples include diuretics (water tablets), some chemotherapy medicines for cancer and some medicines used to treat HIV. However, many people safely take these medicines without developing kidney stones. If you think that a medicine you are taking is the cause of your kidney stone, then you should not stop taking the medicine but discuss it with your doctor.

    You are also more prone to develop kidney stones if you have:

    • Recurrent urine or kidney infections.
    • A kidney with scars or cysts on it.
    • A close relative who has had a kidney stone.

    Tests to confirm the presence of a kidney stone

    If you have symptoms that suggest a kidney stone, special X-rays or scans of the kidneys and ureters may be done. These tests aim to detect a stone and to check that a stone is not blocking the flow of urine.

    Tests to rule out or confirm an underlying cause

    Kidney stones are common and in most cases they are not caused by a known underlying disease. However, some routine tests may be recommended to rule out underlying problems. In particular, tests are more likely to be advised if you have recurring kidney stones, have symptoms of an underlying condition, have a family history of a particular condition or if a stone forms in a child or young person.

    Tests which may be advised include:

    • A blood test to check that the kidneys are working properly.
    • Blood tests to check the level of certain chemicals such as calcium and uric acid.
    • Urine tests to check for infection and for certain crystals.
    • An analysis of the stone if you pass it out. To catch a stone, pass urine through gauze, a tea strainer or a filter such as a coffee filter.

    If the pain eases with pain relief and you do not have symptoms to suggest complications (most people), then your doctor may arrange any tests to be done as an outpatient. However, some people are admitted to hospital for strong painkillers and tests.

Complications from kidney stones are uncommon (although the pain at the time can be severe). Sometimes a large stone can completely block the passage of urine down one ureter. This may lead to infection or damage to the kidney. This is usually avoided, as X-rays or scans will detect a blockage and large stones can be removed.

The common situations

Most stones that cause renal colic are small and pass out with the urine in a day or so. You should drink plenty of fluids to encourage a good flow of urine. Strong painkillers are often needed to ease the pain until you pass the stone. No other treatment is usually needed.

Some stones that form and stick in the kidney do not cause symptoms or any harm. They can just be left if they are small.

Sometimes you may be offered medicines to help the stone pass through, such as nifedipine or tamsulosin.

In some cases

Some stones become stuck in a ureter or kidney and cause persistent symptoms or problems. In these cases, the pain usually becomes severe and you may need to be admitted to hospital. There are various treatment options which include the following:

  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). This uses high-energy shock waves which are focused on to the stones from a machine outside the body to break up stones. You then pass out the tiny broken fragments when you pass urine.
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is used for stones not suitable for ESWL. A nephroscope (a thin telescope-like instrument) is passed through the skin and into the kidney. The stone is broken up and the fragments of stone are removed via the nephroscope. This procedure is usually done under general anaesthetic.
  • Ureteroscopy is another treatment that may be used. In this procedure, a thin telescope is passed up into the ureter via the urethra and bladder. Once the stone is seen, a laser (or other form of energy) is used to break up the stone. This technique is suitable for most types of stone.
  • Stone removal can be done by a traditional operation where the skin has to be cut to allow access to the ureter and kidney. This is only needed in a very small number of cases where the above, newer techniques have not worked or are not possible. It may be done if you have a very large stone in your kidney.

Another option for a stone made purely from uric acid (about 1 in 20 stones) is to dissolve the stone. This can be done by drinking plenty of fluids and making the urine alkaline with medication.

About half of people who have a kidney stone develop another one within 10 years. Sometimes stones can be prevented from forming.

Have plenty to drink

If you have had one stone, you are less likely to have a recurrence if you drink plenty of fluid, mainly water, throughout the day (and night). The aim is to keep the urine dilute. (Your urine is more dilute if it is clear of colour rather than a dark yellow colour.) To do this, you should drink between two and three litres a day (unless your doctor advises otherwise if you have other medical problems). If you work or live in a hot environment, you should drink even more.

Other advice

For the few people who have a high level of certain chemicals in the body, further specific advice may be given. For example:

  • A dietitian may advise people with calcium oxalate stones to reduce the oxalate content of their diet. This may include reducing rhubarb, coffee and spinach.
  • Uric acid stones can be prevented with a medicine.
  • Other advice from a specialist may be appropriate for rarer conditions.

what is Stomach Ulcers symptoms and Treatment ?

 

Peptic ulcer disease refers to painful sores or ulcers in the lining of the stomach or first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.

What Causes Ulcers?

No single cause has been found for ulcers. However, it is now clear that an ulcer is the end result of an imbalance between digestive fluids in the stomach and duodenum. Ulcers can be caused by:

  • Infection with a type of bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
  • Use of painkillers called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn, and others), ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Midol, and others), and many others available by prescription. Even safety-coated aspirin and aspirin in powered form can frequently cause ulcers.
  • Excess acid production from gastrinomas, tumors of the acid producing cells of the stomach that increases acid output (seen in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome).

What Are the Symptoms of an Ulcer?

An ulcer may or may not have symptoms. When symptoms occur, they may include:

In severe cases, symptoms can include:

  • Dark or black stool (due to bleeding)
  • Vomiting blood (that can look like “coffee-grounds”)
  • Weight loss
  • Severe pain in the mid to upper abdomen

How Serious Is an Ulcer?

Though ulcers often heal on their own, you shouldn’t ignore their warning signs. If not properly treated, ulcers can lead to serious health problems, including:

  • Bleeding
  • Perforation (a hole through the wall of the stomach)
  • Gastric outlet obstruction from swelling or scarring that blocks the passageway leading from the stomach to the small intestine.

Taking NSAIDs can cause any of the above symptoms without warning. The risk is especially concerning for the elderly and for those with a prior history of having peptic ulcer disease.

Who Is More Likely to Get Ulcers?

You may be more likely to develop ulcers if you:

  • Are infected with the H. pylori bacterium
  • Take NSAIDs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen
  • Have a family history of ulcers
  • Have another illness such as liver, kidney, or lung disease
  • Drink alcohol regularly
  • Are 50 years old or older

How Are Ulcers Diagnosed?

Your doctor may be able to determine if you have an ulcer just by talking with you about your symptoms. However, to confirm the diagnosis one of several tests should be taken. First, your doctor may ask you to take an acid-blocking medication, such as those used to treat heartburn, for a short period of time to see if symptoms improve.

If needed, your doctor may recommend a procedure called an upper endoscopy. It involves inserting a small, lighted tube (endoscope) through the throat and into the stomach to look for abnormalities. This procedure is usually given if you are having severe symptoms of ulcers.

Doctors will frequently treat for ulcers without confirming the diagnosis using endoscopy. If the cause is not likely to be from NSAIDs, then it is very likely to be from H. pylori. Many doctors will now test for and treat H. pylori, in addition to giving medications to reduce the symptoms.

How Are Ulcers Treated?

If not properly treated, ulcers can lead to serious health problems. There are several ways in which ulcers can be treated, including making changes to ones lifestyle, limiting dairy, taking medication, and/or undergoing surgery.

Lifestyle Changes to Treat an Ulcer

To treat an ulcer, first eliminate substances that can be causing the ulcers. If you smoke or drink alcohol, stop. If the ulcer is believed to be caused by the use of NSAIDs, they need to be stopped.

Ulcer Medications

Ulcer medications can include:

  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Proton pump medications reduce acid levels and allow the ulcer to heal. They include Prilosec, Prevacid, Aciphex, Protonix, Zegerid, Dexilant, and Nexium.
  • Antibiotics. If you have H. pylori infection, then antibiotics are used. There are multiple combinations of antibiotics that are taken for one to two weeks along with a PPI. Pepto-Bismol is also part of some treatment regimens.
  • Upper endoscopy. Some bleeding ulcers can be treated through an endoscope.
  • Surgery. Sometimes an operation is needed if the ulcer has created a hole in the wall of the stomach or if there is serious bleeding that can’t be controlled with an endoscope.

Will Drinking Milk Help Cure an Ulcer?

No. In fact, milk can make an ulcer worse. Milk provides brief relief of ulcer pain because it coats the stomach lining. But milk can also stimulate the stomach to produce more acid and digestive juices, which can aggravate ulcers.

How Can I Prevent Ulcers?

To reduce the risk of developing ulcers:

  • Don’t smoke.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Don’t overuse aspirin and/or NSAIDs.
  • If you have symptoms of an ulcer, contact your health care provider.